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Diagnosis and Management

Acute Facial Paralysis: Facial Nerve Anatomically Intact *

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  1. Falco NA, Eriksson E. Facial nerve palsy in the newborn: incidence and outcome. Plast Reconstr Surg 1990;85(1):1-4.
  2. Mobius PJ. Uber angeborene doppelseitige Abducens-Fascialis-Lahmung. Munch Med Wochenschr 1888;35:91.
  3. Harrison DH. Surgical correction of unilateral and bilateral facial palsy. Postgrad Med J 2005;81:562-7.
  4. Manktelow RT, Tomat LR, Zuker RM, et al. Smile reconstruction in adults with free muscle transfer innervated by the masseter motor nerve: effectiveness and cerebral adaptation. Plat Reconstr Surg 2006;118(4): 885-99.
  5. Dutt SN, Mirza S, Irving RM, et al. Total decompression of facial nerve for Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. J Laryngol Otol 2000;114(11):870-3.
  6. Takushima A, Harii K, et al. Neurovascular free-muscle transfer to treat facial paralysis associated with hemifacial microsomia. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002;109(4):1219-27.
  7. Austin JR, Peskind SP, Austin SG, et al. Idiopathic facial nerve paralysis: a randomized double blind controlled study of placebo versus prednisone. Laryngoscope 1993;103(12):1326-33.
  8. Adour KK, Buboyeannes JM, Von Doereten PG, et al. Bell's palsy treatment with acyclovir and prednisone compared with prednisone alone: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ann Orol Rhinol Laryngol 1996;105:371-398.
  9. Gantz BJ, Rubinstein JT, Gidley P, et al. Surgical management of Bell's palsy. Laryngoscope 1999;109(8):1177-88.
  10. Sweeney CJ, Gilden DH. Ramsey Hunt syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;71(2):149-54.
  11. Uscatequi T, Doree C, Chamberlain IJ, et al. Antiviral therapy for Ramsey Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus with facial palsy) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;8(4):СD006851.
  12. Uscatequi T, Doree C, Chamberlain IJ, et al. Corticosteroids as adjuvant to antiviral treatment in Ramsey Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus with facial palsy) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;16(3):СD006852.
  13. Joseph EM, Sperling NM. Facial nerve paralysis in acute otitis media: cause and management revisited. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998;118:694-6.
  14. Evans AK, Licameli G, Brietzke S, et al. Pediatric facial nerve paralysis: patients, management and outcomes.  Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2005;69:1521-28.
  15. Siddiq MA, Hanu-Cernat LM, Irving RM. Facial palsy secondary to cholesteatoma: analysis of outcome following syrgery. J Laryngol Otol 2007;121:114-7.
  16. Ikeda M, Nakazato H, Onoda K, et al. Facial nerve paralysis caused by middle ear cholesteatoma and effects of surgical intervention. Acta Otolaryngol 2006;126(1):95-100.
  17. Clark JR, Carlson RD, Sasaki CT, et al. Facial paralysis in Lyme disease. Laryngoscope 1985;95(11):1341-5.
  18. Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, et al. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Disease Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43(9):1089-134.
  19. Murr AH, Benecke JE Jr. Association of facial paralysis with HIV positivity. Am J Otol    1991;12(6):450-1.
  20. Chernoff WG, Parnes LS. Tuberculous mastoiditis. J Otolaryngol 1992;21(4):290-2.
  21. Weiner GM, O'Connell JE, Pahor AL. The role of surgery in tuberculous mastoiditis: appropriate chemotherapy is not always enough. J Laryngol Otol 1997;111(8):752-3.
  22. Michel RG, Pope TH Jr, Patterson CN. Infectious mononucleosis, mastoiditis, and facial paralysis. Arch Otolaryngol 1975;101(8):486-9.
  23. Adour K, Wingerd J, Doty HE. Prevalence of concurrent diabetes mellitus and idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy). Diabetes 1975;24(5):449-51.
  24. George MK, Pahor AL. Sarcoidosis: a cause for bilateral facial palsy. Ear Nose Throat J 1991; 70(8):492-3.
  25. Narayanan RP, James N, Ramachandran K, et al. Guillain-Barre Syndrome presenting with bilateral facial nerve paralysis: a case report. Cases J 2008;1(1):379.
  26. Fukazawa T, Moriwaka F, Hamada K, et al. Facial palsy in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 1997;244(10):631-3.
  27. Guerrissi JO. Facial nerve paralysis after intratemporal and extratemporal blunt trauma. J Craniofac Surg 1997;8(5):431-7.
  28. Brodie HA, Thompson TC. Management of complications from 820 temporal bone fractures. Am J Orol 1997;18:188-97.
  29. Lee KJ, Fee WE Jr, Terris DJ. The efficacy of corticosteroids in postparotidectomy facial nerve paresis. Laryngoscope 2002;112(11):1958-63.
  30. Roh JL, Park CI. A prospective, randomized trial for use of prednisolone in patients with facial nerve paralysis after parotidectomy. Am J Surg 2008;196(5):746-50.

Acute Facial Paralysis: Facial Nerve Injury / Transection*

Acute Facial Paralysis - Facial Nerve Injury - Thumbnail

  1. Brodie HA, Thompson TC. Management of complications from 820 temporal bone fractures. Am J Orol 1997;18:188-97.
  2. Ulug T, Arif Ulubil S. Management of facial paralysis in temporal bone fractures: a prospective study analyzing 11 operated fractures. Am J Otolaryngol 2005;26(4):230-8.
  3. Quaranta A, Campobasso G, et al. Facial nerve paralysis in temporal bone fractures: outcomes after late decompression surgery. Acta Otolaryngol 2001;121(5):652-5.
  4. Fisch U. Management of intratemporal facial nerve injuries. J Laryngol Otol 1980;94(1):129-34.
  5. Green JD Jr, Shelton C, Brackmann DE. Surgical management of iatrogenic facial nerve injuries. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994;111(5):606-10.

Intermediate Facial Paralysis

Intermediate Facial Paralysis - Thumbnail

Chronic Facial Paralysis

Chronic Facial Paralysis - Thumbnail

  1. Cheney ML, McKenna MJ, Megerian CA, et al. Early temporalis muscle transposition for the management of facial paralysis. Laryngoscope 1995;105:993-1000.
  2. Hadlock TA, Greenfield LJ, Wernick-Robinson M, et al. Multimodality approach to management of the paralyzed face. Laryngoscope 2006;116(8):1385-9.
  3. Douglas RS, Gausas RE. A systematic comprehensive approach to management of irreversible facial paralysis. Facial Plast Surg 2003;19(1):107-12.
  4. Tate JR, Tollefson TT. Advances in facial reanimation. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;14(4):242-8.
  5. Rose EH. Autogenous fascia lata grafts: clinical applications in reanimation of the totally or partially paralyzed face. Plast Reconstr Surg 2005;116(1):20-32.
  6. Winslow CP, Wang TD, Wax MK. Static reanimation of the paralyzed face with an acellular dermal allograft sling. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2001;3(1):55-7.
  7. Fisher E, Frodel JL. Facial suspension with acellular human dermal allograft. Arch Facial Plast Surg 1999;1(3):195-9.
  8. Morgan AS, McIff T, Park DL, et al. Biomechanical properties of materials used in static facial suspension. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2004;6(5):308-10.
  9. Byrne PJ, Kim M, Boahene K, et al. Temporalis tendon transfer as part of a comprehensive approach to facial reanimation. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2007;9(4):234-41.
  10. Manktelow RT, Tomat LR, Zuker RM, et al. Smile reconstruction in adults with free muscle transfer innervated by the masseter motor nerve: effectiveness and cerebral adaptation. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006;118(4):885-99.
  11. Bae YC, Zuker RM, Manktelow RT, et al. A comparison of commissure excursion following gracilis muscle transplantation for facial paralysis using a cross-face nerve graft versus the motor nerve to the masseter nerve. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006;117(7):2407-13.
  12. Erni D, Lieger O, Banic A. Comparative objective and subjective analysis of temporalis tendon and microneurovascular transfer for facial reanimation. Br J Plast Surg 1999;52(3):167-72.
  13. Mehta RP, Weknick Robinson M, Hadlock TA. Validation of the Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire. Laryngoscope 2007;117(5):923-6.
  14. Husseman J, Mehta RP. Management of synkinesis. Facial Plast Surg 2008;24(2):242-9.
  15. Vanswearingen J. Facial rehabilitation: a neuromuscular reeducation, patient-centered approach. Facial Plast Surg 2008;24(2):250-9.

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Facial Paralysis and Rehabilitation CenterTel: (212) 979-4119Fax: (212) 979-4315

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