New York Eye and Ear Infirmary
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Ben C. Watson, Ph.D., C.C.C.-S.L.P.

Associate Professor in Otolaryngology
Speech / Language Pathology
School of Public Health
NY Medical College
Valhalla, NY  10595
TEL: (914) 594-4239
FAX: (914) 594-4853
Email: bwatson@nyee.edu

Publications

Refereed Journal Articles 

  1. Orlikoff, RF, Deliyski, DD, Baken, RJ, Watson, BC (2007). Validation of a glottographic measure of vocal attack. J Voice, 22. 

  2. Orlikoff, R.F., Dembowski, J., Fitch, J., Gelfer, M., Gerratt, B., Haskell, J., Kreiman, J., Metz, D., Schiavetti, N., Watson, B.C., Wolfe, V. (1999). "The Perceived Role of Voice Perception in Clinical Practice." Phonoscope, 2, 2, 87-106. 

  3. Fozo, M.S. and Watson, B.C. (1999). "Task complexity effects on vocal reaction time in aged speakers." Journal of Voice, 12, 4, 405-414. 

  4. Watson, B.C. (1998). Fundamental frequency during phonetically governed devoicing in normal aged speakers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103, 6, 3642- 3647. 

  5. Roark RM, Schaefer SD, Watson BC (1997) Investigations of laryngeal spasm using time-frequency analysis of intrinsic laryngeal muscles: A new approach using wavelets. Phonoscope: Voice-Speech-Swallowing Clinics in Head and Neck Practice, I . 

  6. Roark, R.M., Dowling, E.M., DeGroat, R., Watson, B.C., & Schaefer, S.D. (1995). "Time-frequency analyses of thyroarytenoid myoelectric activity in normal and spasmodic dysphonia subjects." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38,2, 289-303. 

  7. Watson, B.C., McIntire, D., Roark, R.M., & Schaefer, S.D. (1995). "Statistical analyses of electromyographic activity in spasmodic dysphonic and normal control subjects." Journal of Voice, 9, 1, 3-15. 

  8. Watson, B.C., Freeman, F.J., Devous, M.[)., Chapman, S.B., Finitzo, T., & Pool, K.D. (1994). "Linguistic performance and regional cerebral blood flow deficits in persons who stutter." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 6, 1221-1228. 

  9. Watson, B.C. (1994). "Foreperiod duration, range, and ordering effects on acoustic LRT in normal speakers. Journal of Voice, 8, 3, 248-254. 

  10. Watson, B.C. and Miller, S. (1994). "Response to Craig (letter to the Editor)". Journal of Speech and Hearing Research., 37, 12-95. 

  11. Pool, K., Finitzo, T., Devous, Sr., M., Watson, B.C. and Freeman, F.J. (1993). "On Stuttering and Global Ischemia --- In Reply (Letter to the Editor)." Archives of Neurology, 50, 1289-1290. 

  12. Pool, K., Finitzo, T., Devous, Sr., M., Freeman, F.J., and Watson, B.C. (1992). "Stutterers and Cerebral Blood Flow --- In Reply (Letter to the Editor)." Archives of Neurology, 49, 347-348. 

  13. Miller, S. and Watson, B.C. (1992). "The relation between communication attitude, anxiety, and depression in stutterers and nonstutterers." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 789-798. 

  14. Watson, B.C., Pool, K.D., Devous, M.D., Sr., Freeman, F.J., & Finitzo, T. (1992). "Brain blood flow in stutterers related to acoustic laryngeal reaction time." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 555-61.

  15. Watson, B.C., Miller, S., Freeman, F.J., Chapman, S., Finitzo, T., Pool, K., & Devous, M. (1992). "Linguistic Performance deficits in Stuttering: Relation to laryngeal reaction time profiles." Journal of Fluency Disorders, 16, 85-100. 

  16. Schaefer, S., Roark, R., Watson, B.C., Kondraske, G., Freeman, F., Butsch, B., and Pohl, J. (1992). "Multichannel electromyographic observations in spasmodic dysphonia patients and normal control subjects." Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology 101, 67-75. 

  17. Dembowski, J. and Watson, B.C. (1991). "Instrumented biofeedback therapy for stuttering: A case study." Journal of Fluency Disorders. 16. 241-274. 

  18. Saletsky-Kamen, R. and Watson, B.C. (1991). "Effects of long-term tracheostomy on spectral and clinical indices of speech production development." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 1057-1065. 

  19. Finitzo, T., Freeman, F.J., and the Dallas Center for Vocal Motor Control. (1991). "Whether and wherefore: A response to Oronson and Lagerlund." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 806-81 1. 

  20. Watson, B.C., Schaefer, S., and Freeman, F.J. (1991). "Laryngeal electromyographic activity in adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 473-482. 

  21. Dembowski, J. and Watson, B.C. (1991). "Preparation time and response complexity effects on stutterers' and nonstutterers' acoustic LRT." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 49-59. 

  22. Pool, K., Freeman, F.J., Finitzo, T., Hayatsi, M., Chapman, S., Devous, M., Close, L., Kondraske, G., Mendelssohn, D., Schaefer, S., & Watson, B.C. (1991). "Heterogeneity in spasmodic dysphonia: Neurologic and voice findings." Archives of Neurology, 48, 305-309. 

  23. Pool, K., Devous, M., Freeman, F.J., Watson, B.C., & Finitzo, T. (1991). "Regional cerebral blood flow in developmental stutterers." Archives of Neurology, 48, 509- 512. 

  24. Watson, B.C., Freeman, F., and Dembowski, J. (1991). "Respiratory/laryngeal coupling and complexity effects on acoustic laryngeal reaction time in normal speakers." Journal of Voice, 5, 18-28. 

  25. Watson, B.C., Freeman, F., Chapman, S., Pool, K., Devous, M., Mendelssohn, D., Schaefer, S., Kondraske, G., Close, L., and Finitzo, T. (1991). "Laryngeal Reaction Time profiles in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Relationship to cortical electrophysiologic abnormality." Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 34, 269-278. 

  26. Roark, R., Schaefer, S., Kondraske, G., Watson, B.C., Freeman, F.J., Butsch, R., & Dembowski, J. (1990). "A systems architecture for quantification of dynamic myoelectric and kinematic activity of the human vocal tract." Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, 9, 902-910. 

  27. Roark, R.M., Schaefer, S.D., Kondraske, G., Watson, B.C., & Dembowski, J (1990) "Quantification of dynamic electromyographic and kinematic activity of the human vocal tract II." Ann Otolaryngology 99, 902-91 0. 

  28. Devous, M., Pool, K., Finitzo, T., Freeman, F., Schaefer, S., Watson, B.C., Kondraske, G., and Chapman, S. (1990). "Evidence for cortical dysfunction in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Regional cerebral blood flow and quantitative electrophysiology." Brain and Language, 39, 331-344. 

  29. Finitzo, T. and Freeman, F. and The Dallas Center for Vocal Motor Control. (1989). "Spasmodic Dysphonia, Whether and Where: Results of seven years of research." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 32, 541-555. 

  30. Watson, B.C. (1988). "Measures of speech production." IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 7(l): 30-33. 

  31. Close, L.G., Merkel, M., Watson, B.C., and Schaefer, S. (1987). "Crico-arytenoid subluxation, CT and EMG findings." Head and Neck Surge , 9, 341-343. 

  32. Schaefer, S., Watson, B.C., Freeman, F., Kondraske, G., Pool, K., Dembowski, J., Jafari, M., Close, L., Devous, M., Chapman, S., and Finitzo, T. (1987). "Vocal tract electromyographic abnormalities in spasmodic dysphonia: A preliminary report." The Transactions of the American Laryngological Association, 108, 187-196. 

  33. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1987). "Physiological bases of acoustic LRT in nonstutterers, mild stutterers, and severe stutterers." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 30(4), 434-447. 

  34. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1983). "Foreperiod and stuttering severity effects on acoustic laryngeal reaction time." Journal of Fluency Disorders, 8, 189-205. 

  35. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1982). "Comparison of LRT and VOT between stutterers and nonstutterers." Journal of Fluency Disorders, 7, 219-241. 

Book Chapters and Status Reports 

  1. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (2001). "Noninvasive instrumentation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Stuttering." in M. Cannito and D. Vogel (eds.) Treating Disordered Speech Motor Control. 2nd Edition. Austin: Pro Ed. 

  2. Watson, B.C. and Freeman, F.J. (1997). "Contributions of Brain Imaging." in R.F. Curlee and G.M. Seigel (eds.) Nature and Treatment of Stuttering: New Directions, 2nd Edition. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 

  3. Watson, B.C. and Freeman, F.J. (1997). "Neurophysiologic and Behavioral Evidence for a Fluency-Generating System." in H.F.M. Peters and W. Huistijn (eds.) Speech Motor Production and Fluenc Disorders. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 

  4. Dembowski, J. & Watson, B.C. (1991). "Acoustic reaction time in relation to models of central nervous system function." In H.F.M. Peters, W. Huistijn, & C.W. Starkweather (eds.) Speech Motor Control and Stuttering. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 

  5. Finitzo, T., Pool, K., Freeman, F., Devous, M., Watson, B.C., Clark, J., Reamy-Rampy, S., & Rampy, B.A. (1991). "Cortical dysfunction in developmental stutterers." in H.F.M. Peters, W. Huistijn, & C.W. Starkweather (eds.) Speech Motor Control and Stuttering. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 

  6. Watson, B.C. & Dembowski, J. (1991). "Instrumentation in the evaluation and modification of speech motor control during stuttering therapy." in H.F.M. Peters, W. Huistijn, & C.W. Starkweather (eds.) Speech Motor Control and Stuttering. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 

  7. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1991). "Noninvasive instrumentation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Stuttering." in M. Cannito and D. Vogel (eds.) Treating Disordered Speech Motor Control. Austin: Pro Ed. 

  8. Chapman, S., Watson, B.C., Finitzo, T., Freeman, F., Devous, M., and Pool, K. (1989). "Multifocal cortical dysfunction in spasmodic dysphonia." in Yorkston, K. and Beukelman, D. (eds.) Recent Advances in Clinical Dysarthria. Boston: College Hill Press. 

  9. Alfonso, P.J., Watson, B.C., and Baer, T. (1987). "Measuring stutterers' dynamical vocal tract characteristics by x-ray microbeam pellet tracking." in H.F.M. Peters and W. Hulstijn (eds.) Speech Motor Dynamics in Stuttering: Research in speech motor behavior. New York: Springer Press. 

  10. Alfonso, P.J., Story, R., and Watson, B.C. (1987). "The organization of supralaryngeal articulation in stutterers’ fluent speech production: A second report." Annual Bulletin of the Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, 21, 117-129. 

  11. Borden, G.I. and Watson, B.C. (1987). "Methodological aspects of simultaneous measurements: Limitations and possibilities." in H.F.M. Peters and W. Huistijn (eds.) Speech Motor Dynamics in Stuttering: Research in speech motor behavior. New York: Springer Press. 

  12. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1987). "Physiological bases of acoustic LRT in nonstutterers, mild stutterers, and severe stutterers." Haskins Laboratories Status Reports on Speech Research, SR-92, 85-106. 

  13. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1987). "Coordination of prephonatory events in mild and severe stutterers." in H.F.M. Peters and W. Huistijn (eds.) Speech Motor Dynamics in Stuttering: Research in speech motor behavior. New York: Springer Press. 

  14. Alfonso, P.J., Watson, B.C., Baer, T., Sawashima, M., Hirose, J., Kiritani, S., Niimi, S., ltoh, K., Sekimoto, S., Honda, K., and lmagawa, H. (1985). "The organization of supralaryngeal articulation in stutterers' fluent speech production: A preliminary report." The Annual Bulletin of the Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, (No. 19, pp. 191-200). University of Tokyo. 

  15. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1982). "Acoustic laryngeal reaction time: Foreperiod and stuttering severity effects." Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research, SR-71, 261-280.

Published Abstracts (in chronological order) 

  1. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1980). Comparison of LRT and VOT values between stutterers and nonstutterers. ASHA, 22-90, 6383. 

  2. Alfonso, P.J., Watson, B.C., and Russo, A. (1981). Variable foreperiod effects on LRT in stutterers and normal speakers. ASHA, 23-10, 778. 

  3. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (I 983). Respiratory and laryngeal movements associated with stutterers' delayed acoustic LRT. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Suppl. 1, 73, SI 6. 

  4. Alfonso, P.J., Watson, B.C., and Baer, T. (I 983). Muscle, movement, and acoustic measurements of stutterers' laryngeal reaction time. Folia Phoniatrica, 35-4, 102. 

  5. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (I 983). Simultaneous movement and acoustic measures of stutterers' and nonstutterers' LRT. ASHA. 25-10. 102. 

  6. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1984). Organization and timing of prephonatory movements in mild and severe stutterers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Suppl. 1, 75, S46. 

  7. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1984). Laryngeal and respiratory timing in stutterers and nonstutterers. ASHA, 26-10, 81. 

  8. Alfonso, P.J., Watson, B.C., and Baer, T. (1986). The kinematics of obstruent production in stutterers' fluent speech. Logopedics and Phoniatrics: Issues for Future Research, 274-275. 

  9. Watson, B.C. and Alfonso, P.J. (1986). Prephonatory respiratory activity in stutterers and nonstutterers. ASHA, 28-10, 165. 

  10. Alfonso, P.J., Watson, B.C., and Seider, [R. (1986). Tongue and jaw articulation in stutterer fluent speech. ASHA, 28-10, 166. 

  11. Alfonso, P.J., Watson, B.C., and Story, R. (1 987). Tongue-jaw displacement variability in the fluent speech of stutterers and control subjects. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Suppl. 1, 81, S56. 

  12. Schaefer, S., Freeman, F.J., Watson, B.C., and Kondraske, G.V. (1987). Electromyographic studies in spasmodic dysphonia. ASHA, 29-10, 125. 

  13. Alfonso, P.J., Story, R., and Watson, B.C. (1987). Spatial-temporal variability of tongue-jaw movement in stutterers' fluent speech. ASHA, 29-10, 159. 

  14. Finitzo, T., Freeman, F., Chapman, S., Watson, B.C. et al. (1987). "Windows" on the CNS in vocal control disorders. ASHA, 29-10, 201. Scientific exhibit presented at the annual convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, November, New Orleans, Louisiana. 

  15. Alfonso, P.J., Harris, J., Borden, G., Saltzman, E., Freeman, F., Watson, B., Story, R., Armson, J., and Kalinowski, J. (1988). Gestural Analysis of Stuttering. ASHA, 30- 10, 120. Miniseminar presented at the annual convention of the American Speech- Language-Hearing Association, November, Boston, Mass. 

  16. Chapman, S., Watson, B.C., Pool, K., Devous, M., Finitzo, T., Freeman, F., Kondraske, G., Mendelssohn, D., and Schaefer, S. (1988). Multifocal cortical dysfunction in Spasmodic Dysphonia. ASHA, 30-10, 195. 

  17. Dembowski, J. and Watson, B.C. (1988). Differential effects of preparation on stutterers' and nonstutterers' reaction time. ASHA, 30-10, 142. 

  18. Dembowski, J. and Watson, B.C. (1988). Stutterers' and nonstutterers' reaction time variability across stimulus/response conditions. ASHA, 30-10, 142. 

  19. Freeman, F.J., Watson, B.C., Dembowski, J., Finitzo, T., Pool, K., Chapman, S., Devous, M., Schaefer, S., Kondraske, G., Donnell, A., and Mendelssohn, D. (1988). LRT profiles of adult stutterers: Behavioral and neural imaging correlates. ASHA, 30-10, 143. 

  20. Watson, B.C., Freeman, F.J., Donnell, A., and Dembowski, J. (1988). Task effects on acoustic laryngeal reaction time in normal speakers. ASHA, 30-10, 198. 

  21. Watson, B.C., Freeman, F.J., Pool, K., Devous, M., and Mendelssohn, D. (I 988). Relationship between CNS abnormality and LRT profiles in Spasmodic Dysphonia. ASHA, 30-10, 90. 

  22. Watson, B.C. (1989). Quantitative motor mapping in vocal motor control: Laryngeal. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, January, San Francisco, CA. 

  23. Watson, B.C. and Caruso, A. J. (1989). Use of Instrumentation in the treatment of stuttering. ASH , 31-10, 46. Short course presented at the annual convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, November, St. Louis, Mi. 

  24. Dembowski, J. S. and Watson, B.C. (1989). Utterance complexity effects on stutterers' acoustic laryngeal reaction time. ASHA, 31-10, 108. 

  25. Saletsky-Kamen, R. and Watson, B.C. (1989). Effects of long-term tracheotomy on acoustic parameters of speech production. ASHA, 31-10, 69. 

  26. Roark, R., Schaefer, S.D., Watson, B.C., Kondraske, G., Freeman, F.J., Close, L., Devous, M., Finitzo, T., and Pool, K. (1989). Quantification of dynamic electromyographic and kinematic activity of the human vocal tract. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Laryngologic Association, Spring, Miami, 1990. 

  27. Orlikoff, R., Kent, R., Saletsky-Kamen, R., Watson, B.C., Dembowski, J. & Ramig, L. (1990). Applying Technology to practice: The clinical promise of phonetic sciences. ASHA 32-10, 103. Miniseminar presented at the annual convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, November, Seattle, WA. 

  28. Watson, B.C., Freeman, F.J., Pool, K., Devous, M., & Finitzo, T. (1990). Acoustic LRT related to brain blood flow in stutterers. ASHA 32-10, 146. 

  29. Roark, R., Schaefer, S., Watson, B., Kondraske, G., Freeman, F., Close, L., Devous, M., Finitzo, T., and Pool, K. (1990). Quantification of dynamic electromyographic and kinematic activity of the human vocal tract. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Laryngologic Association. 

  30. Schaefer, S., Roark, R., Watson, B., Freeman, F., Butch, R., Pool, K., Close, L., and Finitzo, T. (1990). Multichannel electromyographic observations in spasmodic dysphonia patients and normal control subjects. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Laryngologic Association. 

  31. Watson, B.C., Dembowski, J. and Miller, S. (1991). Foreperiod duration, range, and distribution effects on acoustic LRT. ASHA 33-10. 109. 

  32. Miller, S. and Watson, B.C. (1991). Anxiety, depression, and communication attitude in stutterers and nonstutterers. ASHA 33-10, 166. 

  33. Watson, B.C., Macintire, D., Roark, R.M., & Schaefer, S.D. (1992). Statistical modeling of EMG abnormality in spasmodic dysphonia. ASHA, 34-10, 171.

  34. Watson, B.C. (1993). Foreperiod effects on acoustic laryngeal reaction time. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 13(4) Pt. 2, 2295. 

  35. Watson, B.C., Roark, R., & Schaefer, S. (1993). Quantitative analyses of thyroarytenoid activity in spasmodic dysphonia. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 94(3), Pt. 2,1781. 

  36. Roark, R.M., Dowling, E.M., DeGroat, R.L., Watson, B.C., & Schaefer, S.D. (1993). Spectral myoelectric analysis of thyroarytenoid activity in normal and spasmodic dysphonia subjects. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 94(3),Pt.2,1781. 

  37. Kashani, A., Berkower, A. S., Watson, B.C., & Schaefer, S.D. (1995). "Mathematical expression and model of laryngospasm." Transactions of the 1995 Eastern Section Triological Society Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA. January. 

  38. Watson, B.C. and Freeman, F.J. (1995). "Neurophysiologic and Behavioral Evidence for a Fluency-Generating System." 3rd International conference on Fluency. Nijmegen, Amsterdam, June. 

  39. Watson, B.C., Peavey, B., Caruso, T., Stager, S., Miller, S., Blood, G., & Guitar, B. (1995). "Fear and Fluency: The Psychophysiology of Arousal and Speech Production." Annual Convention Of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, December, Orlando, FLA. 

  40. Roark, R.M., Schaefer, S.D., & Watson, B.C. (1996). Wavelet analyses of intrinsic laryngeal EMG activity during spasm. Transactions of the 117th Annual Meeting of the American Laryngological Association, Orlando, FL. 

  41. Roark, R.M., Schaefer, S.D., & Watson, B.C. (1996). Investigations of laryngeal spasm using time-frequency analysis of intrinsic laryngeal muscles: A new approach using wavelets. The 1st Neurolaryngology Symposium, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. 

  42. Roark, R.M., Schaefer, S.D., Watson, B.C. (1996). Wavelet Analysis of Electromyographic Signals during Laryngeal Spasm. Annual meeting of the American Laryngological Association, Orlando, FL, May. 

  43. Watson, B.C. (1997). Central neural dysfunction: Technological approaches and findings. Invited presentation at the 26th Annual Symposium of the Voice Foundation, Philadelphia, PA, June. 

  44. Watson, B.C. (1998). Fundamental frequency and RMS amplitude changes during phonetic voicing transitions in aged speakers. Mid Winter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, St. Petersburg Beach, FL, February. 

  45. Watson, BC, Fozo, MD (1999). Speech timing in normal aged speakers during syllable repetition. Annual Convention of the American Speech-language-Hearing Association, San Francisco, November. 

  46. Watson, B.C. (2000). Instrumented measures of Voice and Speech. Invited presentation at the 29th Annual Symposium of the Voice Foundation, Philadelphia, PA, June.

  47. Orlikoff, R.F., Behrman, A., Dembowski, J., & Watson, B.C. (2000). Practical Application of Research Techniques to Speech and Voice Disorders. Annual Convention of the American Speech-language-Hearing Association, Washington, D.C., November.

  48. Watson, B.C. (2004). Brain Imaging in Stuttering: The Early Years. ASHA Special Interest Division 4 (Fluency and Fluency Disorders) 11th Annual Leadership Conference, Portland, OR, July.

  49. Dembowski, James & Watson, Ben C. Alternating Movement Control in Aging Speakers, poster presentation #1187, annual meeting American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA), Philadelphia, PA, November 2004.

  50. Deliyski, D., Orlikoff, R., Baken, RJ, & Watson, BC (2006). High-Speed Videoendoscopic validation on a glottographic estimate of vocal fold adduction time. Annual Symposium of the Voice Foundation, Philadelphia, PA, June.

  51. Orlikoff, RF, Watson, BC, Baken, RJ, & Deliyski, DD (2006).  Quantifying Vocal Attack Using a Glottographic Estimate of Vocal-Fold Approximation Time.

  52. Thompson, C & Watson, BC (2007).  Relations among Patient, Clinician & Instrumented Indices of Voice Disorder, poster presentation, annual meeting American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA), Boston, MA, November.

  53. Glass, R & Watson, BC (2007).  Effect of Cardiovascular Exercise on Developmental Stuttering, poster presentation, annual meeting American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA), Boston, MA, November.

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